1. I would redesign pens a. Writing instrument. b. Using sustainable and reusable materials to hold the ink outside of the current plastic and metals inside the pens. Or you could even provide a refilling option instead of throwing them out. c. The principle I used is material. d. Economic benefits include either reuse of materials or lower production of pens (refilling option). Environmental benefits are that there is less waste going to landfills. e. It can be waste to wealth or hybrid refill. f. It would be in the recycle and reuse/redistribute.